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Marlborough (often spelled Marlboro) is a city in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, United States. The population was 38,499 at the 2010 census. Marlborough became a prosperous industrial town in the 19th century and made the transition to high technology industry in the late 20th century after the construction of the Massachusetts Turnpike.
Marlborough was declared a town in 1660. It was incorporated as a city in 1890 when it changed its Municipal charter from a New England town meeting system to a Mayor–council government.